Codeine is a selective agonist for the mu opioid receptor, but with a much weaker affinity to this receptor than morphine, a more potent opioid drug. Codeine binds to mu-opioid receptors, which are involved in the transmission of pain throughout the body and central nervous system . The analgesic properties of codeine are thought to arise from its conversion to Morphine, although the exact mechanism of analgesic action is unknown at this time
Codeine is also used to control coughs when non-narcotic cough suppressants don’t work. The drug works on the brain to suppress the cough reflex.
Your doctor may have suggested this medicine for a condition that is not listed in this Medication Information article. Also, some forms of this medicine may not be used for all of the conditions mentioned in this article. If you have not yet discussed this with your doctor, or if you are in doubt as to why you are taking this medicine, consult with your doctor. Do not stop taking this medicine without consulting your doctor first.
Do not give this medicine to anyone, even someone who has the same symptoms as yours. This medicine could harm people for whom it was not prescribed.https://414f5d08e317a0a4376231f08fad88c1.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-37/html/container.html
What forms does this medication come in?
Each white tablet contains 15 mg of codeine phosphate. Nonmedicinal ingredients : cellulose, colloidal silica dioxide, croscarmellose, lactose, and magnesium stearate. Free from alcohol, gluten, sulphite and tartrazine.
Each white tablet contains 30 mg of codeine phosphate. Nonmedicinal ingredients : cellulose, colloidal silica dioxide, croscarmellose, lactose, and magnesium stearate. Free from alcohol, gluten, sulphite and tartrazine.
How should this medication be used?
Pain Relief: The recommended dose of codeine for pain relief in adults and children over 12 years of age is 15 mg to 60 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed , not exceeding a total daily dose of 360 mg.
Cough: The recommended adult dose of codeine for cough relief is 15 mg to 30 mg every 6 to 8 hours as needed, up to a total daily dose of 120 mg.
The use of codeine is no longer recommended for children due to the increased risk of breathing difficulties and other complications associated with the administration of this medicine.
There are several factors that can be taken into account in determining the dose a person needs: their weight, their health and whether they are taking other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from those listed here, do not change the way you are taking the medicine without consulting your doctor .
This medicine can be habit-forming if taken for long periods of time. Do not stop taking this medicine without consulting your doctor first. If you stop taking this medicine suddenly, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, sweating, trouble sleeping, shaking, nausea, tremors, diarrhea, or hallucinations. If you plan to stop treatment, your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the dose to lessen the withdrawal effects.
It is important to use this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. If your doctor has told you to take this medicine regularly and you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as you notice the missed medicine and resume treatment as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, do not worry about the missed dose and go back to your usual dosing schedule. Do not use a double dose to make up for a missed dose. If you are unsure of what to do after missing a dose, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Store this medication at room temperature, protect it from light and moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medicines in the waste water (eg not in the sink or in the toilet bowl) or with household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of unused or expired medicines.
In which cases is this medication not recommended?
Do not use this medicine under the following circumstances:
- is allergic to codeine or to any of the ingredients of the medication
- are allergic to drugs which produce an effect comparable to that induced by morphine;
- severe alcoholism or the presence of delirium tremens;
- acute asthma or other obstructive upper airway condition;
- acute respiratory depression;
- obstruction of the digestive tract, especially a paralytic ileus;
- head trauma, brain tumor, or increased pressure in the brain or spinal cord;
- have taken an MAO inhibitor such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine within the previous 14 days
- a seizure disorder;
- a cor pulmonale;
- recent alcohol consumption;
- the possibility of an abdominal condition that may require surgery;
- pregnancy or breast-feeding; during labor or delivery;
Do not give this medicine to children under 12 years old.
What are the possible side effects of this medicine?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a drug when taken in normal doses. It can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent. The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medicine. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
At least 1% of people taking this medicine reported the following side effects. Many of these side effects can be managed and a few may go away on their own over time.
Consult your doctor if you experience these side effects and if they are serious or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to give you advice on what to do if these side effects appear:
- loss of appetite;
- dry mouth;
- feeling light-headed;
Most of the side effects listed below do not happen very often, but they could cause serious problems if you do not see your doctor or receive medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- difficulty passing urine or reduced urine output;
- hives, itching or rash;
- signs of breathing problems (eg shortness of breath, wheezing, irregular or difficult breathing).
Stop taking the drug and seek immediate medical attention if there is a response such as:
- epileptic seizures;
- great weakness;
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (e.g. abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, or swelling of the face and swelling of the throat);
- signs of a codeine overdose: cool, clammy skin, low blood pressure, narrowing of the pupil of the eyes, severe drowsiness, severe nervousness or agitation, slow heart rate, weakness ;
- slowed down or difficult breathing.
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. See your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while taking this medicine.
Are there other precautions or warnings?
Before using any medication, be sure to tell your doctor about any medical conditions or allergies you may have, the medications you are using, and any other important facts about your health. Women should mention if they are pregnant or breastfeeding. These factors could influence how you should use this medicine.
Asthma and other respiratory conditions: Codeine may cause increased breathing difficulties for people who have an asthma attack or those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema) or other conditions that affect breathing. If you have asthma or other breathing problems, talk to your doctor about how this medicine may affect your condition, how your condition affects the administration and effectiveness of this medicine, and how to the relevance of specific medical surveillance.
Other medical conditions: People who are about to have surgery targeting the bile ducts should exercise caution while taking codeine, as this medicine may make their condition worse. Taking codeine will make the effects of acute alcohol poisoning, and delirium tremens, more painful to bear.
People with hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia (an enlarged prostate), narrowing of the urethra, adrenal insufficiency, or porphyria should discuss with their doctor how this medication might influence their medical condition, how their medical condition may affect the administration and effectiveness of this medication, and the appropriateness of specific medical supervision.
Constipation: Codeine can cause severe constipation. A diet rich in fiber and good intestinal transit will help minimize this effect. People who have a tendency to constipation should discuss with their doctor how this medicine might affect their condition, how their condition might affect the administration and effectiveness of this medicine, and the suitability of an specific medical surveillance.
Dependence and withdrawal: phenomena of physical and psychological dependence as well as abuse have occurred during the use of codeine. People who have had, or are having, problems with alcohol and drug use may be at increased risk for misuse or addiction while using this medicine. Misuse is not a problem experienced by people who require this medication for pain relief.
Withdrawal symptoms could occur if the drug is suddenly stopped such as anxiety, sweating, trouble sleeping, shaking, pain, nausea, tremors, diarrhea and hallucinations. If you have been taking this medicine for a long time, you should follow your doctor’s instructions to stop using the medicine gradually.
Dizziness: Codeine can cause severe dizziness, especially when a person goes from a sitting or lying position to a standing position. This phenomenon is more likely to occur when a person is also taking other drugs with similar side effects. People who use drugs that can cause dizziness should slowly change from sitting or lying down to standing to reduce the possibility of severe dizziness, or syncope.
Kidney function: People with kidney disease or who have reduced kidney function should discuss with their doctor how this medicine may affect their condition, how their condition may affect how it is given and how well it works. drug, and the relevance of specific medical surveillance. Codeine should not be used by people with severely reduced kidney function.
Liver disease: People with liver disease should discuss with their doctor how this medicine might affect their condition, how their condition might affect how well this medicine is given and how well it works, and how it works. relevance of specific medical surveillance.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: People with conditions affecting the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease, should discuss with their doctor how this medication may affect their condition, how their condition may affect administration, and how to use it. efficacy of this drug, and the relevance of specific medical supervision.
Breathing: Codeine may cause respiratory arrest. People who have risk factors for breathing difficulties such as asthma should discuss with their doctor how this medicine might affect their condition, how their condition might affect how this medicine is given and how well it works, and the relevance of specific medical surveillance.
Heart rate: Codeine can cause changes in the normal heart rate. If you are predisposed to problems with your heart rhythm (eg, have heart failure, have angina, or have low potassium or magnesium levels), talk to your doctor about how this medicine might affect your condition, how your condition affects the administration and effectiveness of this medicine, and the need for specific medical supervision.
Drowsiness or reduced alertness: Codeine may cause drowsiness. Avoid driving, operating machinery, or doing other potentially hazardous tasks until you have determined the effect of this medicine on your ability to react.
Head trauma: People with head trauma or increased pressure in your head are at increased risk for side effects (breathing problems) or their condition getting worse while taking this medicine. They should discuss with their doctor how this medication might influence their medical condition, how their medical condition may affect the administration and effectiveness of this medication, and the appropriateness of specific medical supervision.
Abdominal problems : Codeine may make the diagnosis of abdominal problems more difficult or make them worse. People with abdominal disorders such as inflammatory or obstructive bowel disease, acute cholecystitis, or pancreatitis should discuss with their doctor how this medicine might affect their condition, how their condition might affect the administration, and the efficacy of this drug, and the relevance of specific medical supervision.
Seizures: Codeine may increase the risk of seizures in people with a seizure disorder. If you have a history of seizure or a seizure disorder, discuss with your doctor how this medicine may affect your condition, how your condition affects the administration and effectiveness of this medicine, and how relevance of specific medical surveillance.
Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If pregnancy occurs while you are using this medicine, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: This medicine passes into breast milk. Some of the codeine is converted into morphine by the body. For some people, this process happens faster than for others. If this happens in a nursing mother, the baby is at risk of overdosing on morphine through breast milk, which could be fatal. If you use codeine while you are breast-feeding your baby may feel the effects. Check with your doctor to see if you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of this medicine has not been established for children under 12 years of age.
Seniors: Seniors may be more sensitive to the side effects of codeine taken in adult doses. You may be given lower doses to avoid side effects from this medicine.